When parents separate or divorce in Los Angeles California and child custody is contested, the parties can attend child custody mediation in Los Angeles County to sort out their disagreements regarding child custody and visitation. Child custody mediation in Los Angeles County is a form of alternative dispute resolution that may be scheduled by appointment with the Los Angeles County Family Court Services mediation or Conciliation Courts.
In a contested child custody matter in Los Angeles, child custody mediation is required before the parties can have a litigated hearing in the Los Angeles family court. In other words, the parties must first attempt to sort out their child custody and visitation disagreements through child custody mediation in Los Angeles before a Los Angeles Superior Court judge or commissioner will hear the child custody dispute in a litigated hearing.
Typically in child custody mediation, both parents are asked to complete a child custody mediation information intake form. The intake form can help the Los Angeles mediator learn more about the child custody and visitation issues being disputed before meeting with the parents. The mediator may meet with the parents together or individually and will typically facilitate the discussion in attempts to help the parents resolve their disputes. In child custody mediation, the parties may resolve all, some, or none of the child custody issues being disputed.
In Los Angeles County mediation is confidential, which means the mediator will not report to the court what was discussed in mediation. Mediators may report to the court a signed mutual agreement which has been mutually accepted by both parties. Mediators may recommend a child custody evaluation or investigation or that an attorney be appointed to represent the child. Los Angeles County mediators are mandated reporters of child abuse, which means they are required to report suspicion of child abuse to Child Protective Services or CPS.
California Family Code section 3170-3173 describes the availability of child custody mediation and addresses child custody and visitation disputes involving modifications, domestic violence, adoptions, paternity, and stepparent and grandparent petitions. California Family Code section 3160-3165 describes the general provisions of child custody mediation and its purpose. However, since the specific details of child custody mediation and mediators may differ from county to county in California and can change over time, you may want to inquire with the Los Angeles Superior courthouse for more information. Further, you would be wise to consult a Los Angeles family law attorney, Los Angeles divorce attorney, or Los Angeles divorce lawyer to help you learn more about the local processes and local rules for child custody mediation and learn if child custody mediation is the right approach for your Los Angeles child custody situation.
Imagine a society where law enforcement authorities have free reign in listening to people’s conversations, watching every move, and recording where and when a person goes to – without any knowledge they are being monitored and tracked at all. Sounds eerie, doesn’t it? Well, this draconic ‘Big Brother’ scenario might not be a remote possibility right now following a recent decision by the California Federal Court of Appeals to uphold unwarranted use of GPS tracking devices by federal agents on a drug conviction case.
The defendant in question was Juan Pineda-Moreno was convicted of drug trafficking after federal agents allegedly placed hidden GPS trackers on his Jeep even without an issued search warrant to do so. Pineda-Moreno appealed to the Federal Court but was rejected on grounds that the agents placed these GPS tracking devices when the vehicle was on public property.
Why should you, an ordinary law-abiding citizen, be concerned about developments from this seemingly isolated case? For one thing, this incident is a direct violation of the 4th Amendment of the US Constitution — the only firewall people have against warrantless use of GPS tracking devices by police, federal agents and other government authorities.
What this simply means for you is that the police cannot just go out and place any type of hidden tracker on your vehicle or property without a warrant or without you knowing about it. Imagine the implications it would have on you should law enforcement officials or private investigators have free access to your vehicles just because it was parked on public property. That would be a total invasion of your privacy, a thing that many people are trying to protect in a world where spy-like tools are available in the market – and at wholesale prices!
The only way to combat technology is to counter it with the same technology – through the use of GPS jammers. Whether the courts uphold the 4th Amendment or not in relation to the use of warrantless GPS tracking devices nothing can stop a person from ordering and buying a GPS tracker, throw it into your car, then track and record where you are going – all without your knowledge.
Although the purchase of GPS jammers is still restricted within the United States, anyone can order these devices from international wholesale suppliers and get them the next day. However, you should practice discretion if you should decide on importing a GPS jammer from one of these international wholesalers. It would be best to learn any stipulations or restrictions in your own locality – before making any decision to purchase.
In the meantime, civic rights groups continue their appeal on US courts to totally reject unwarranted use of GPS tracking devices by private parties and law enforcement agencies. They are very adamant in restricting use of GPS tracking devices by law enforcement authorities to track people only after obtaining a valid search warrant for a judge.
Physical custody generally refers to where a child will live when parents divorce or separate. Physical custody is much different than legal custody, which has to do with the rights and responsibilities of the parents to their children. The parent with physical custody has the right to have his/her child live with him/her. If a child lives exclusively or primarily with one parent that parent is generally referred to as the custodial parent with sole physical custody or primary physical custody. The other parent would be considered the non-custodial parent and would typically have visitation rights to his/her child. If a child lives equally or close to half the time with each of his/her parents the parents will generally have joint physical custody. In some joint physical custody arrangements, a parent that has more time with the child may be denoted as having primary physical custody of his/her child while the other parent has secondary physical custody.
Joint Physical Custody
According to the California Family Code section 3004, “Joint physical custody” means that each of the parents shall have significant periods of physical custody. Joint physical custody shall be shared by the parents in such a way so as to assure a child of frequent and continuing contact with both parents, subject to Sections 3011 and 3020.”
Sole Physical Custody
According to the California Family Code section 3007, “Sole physical custody” means that a child shall reside with and be under the supervision of one parent, subject to the power of the court to order visitation.”
Primary Physical Custody
Primary physical custody is a term that is often used to denote the parent with whom a child spends or lives the great majority of time with. The term “primary physical custody” is often used in cases where parents are awarded joint physical custody and one parent has slightly more time than the other. However, in California, the term “primary physical custody” is not found in the family code and there is no statutory language to define its legal meaning. Nevertheless, the courts continue to denote one parent as having “primary physical custody” and the other “secondary physical custody,” which has created issues with its interpretation, particularly in “move-away cases” in which the parent with “primary physical custody” seeks permission from the court to relocate with his/her child.
Whether you have a custody order that defines how physical custody is awarded or if there is no order regarding physical custody of the children, physical custody is an important legal term that you should become familiar with. Having a general knowledge and awareness of common legal terms such as “physical custody,” “sole physical custody,” and “joint physical custody,” and with the help of an experienced family law attorney, you can have greater assurance that you are doing what is necessary to protect your parental rights, parental responsibilities, and your relationship with your children.
The Placer County jail California Arrest Records are considered as a public document which means that the residents of the state has the freedom to obtain or access it should they have a need for it. Such document is available at the office of the Placer County Superior Courts. One can be issued an arrest record if the law of the country or the state is violated.
The Placer arrest records are used for a number of reasons. Residents of Placer would request for a copy of their personal criminal arrest records to verify what is stated on the file. This ensures that the document has accurate information only. The document is also the primary source of information when conducting a background check. Owners of businesses or companies would look into the criminal history of their people to make sure that they only have qualified and trustworthy individuals working for them. The document is also checked when an individual is applying for certification or license. The application may be denied or delayed if the individual is found to have a criminal history. The document is also used by individuals to check on the criminal history of their partners. They do this to make sure that they would not be harmed or hurt once they get married.
Details about the arrest of an individual are what the Placer arrest records focus on. The one would know as to where and when the individual has been reported for his/her crimes. One would also know if the individual has some pending arrest. This can help employers in their decision to hire the applicant or not. If the individual was convicted for the crimes, the charges and the sentence given or imposed are also indicated on the file.
Although the main reason why the criminal records are made opened to the public is for public awareness and to improve the security of the county or the state, making it open to the public also pose a problem for those who had a previous history. Some have complained of not getting a decent job. Others felt that they were treated unequally by their peers and bosses just because of their criminal history. Discrimination is indeed the main problem experienced by people who has a previous record.
The request can be done at the Placer County Superior Court. It can also be obtained at the California Department of Justice since all of the criminal records of the state are kept here. The state office also releases records from other counties. One has to pay the retrieval fee but this cost may differ on the type of document obtained as well as the type of request.
The development of the Internet has made the retrieval easy and fast. Doing a California arrest records search online is as fast as 1-2-3. One just needs to use the services offered by some websites and provide the necessary information needed and in just a few seconds the results are displayed on the computer screen.
Like any other States in the US, divorce in California is considered as Public Divorce Records. This means that the records are available for the public and anyone can request for the records. There are however two types of divorce records available for request – authorized and informational copy and it is best to determine if one is eligible for which type of record.
Authorized copies and informational ones are the same as they contain the same details including the registrants, the date the divorce was filed and the county where the divorce was granted. The difference is that informational copies cannot be used as valid documents and are issued for information purposes only. Authorized copies on the other hand are legal documents and can serve as supporting documents especially if one is requesting for child support or spousal support. Authorized copies are available only for the spouse or domestic partners, an adoption agency, parents of the divorced couples and their kids. A statement stating that the informational copy is not a valid document is printed below the divorce report.
For those who want to obtain a copy only, they can visit the California Department of Public Health or CDPH Vital Records section. The Vital records office does not issue marriage and divorce certified copies; they can however issue a Certificate of Record. The Certificate of Record contains a summary of the case, the parties involved and the county that granted the divorce. Certificates of Records do not include the decision with regards to the case. For those who need a certified copy, they can visit the California Superior Court or the Superior Court of the County where the divorce was granted. Available records from the CDPH range from 1962 to 1984; the rest of the records are available from the Superior court.
For those individuals who only require some information, they can request for a Certificate of Record from CDPH. A downloadable guide or pamphlet is available from the CDPH site, which contains a systematic guide as well as a request form that one needs to fill up and send to the Vital Records office. All fees are non-refundable and in case no records are shown, a Certificate of No Public Records is issued. The Office accepts only checks and money order only. Processing can exceed 6 months depending on the volume of requests received.
Those who want a certified copy of their divorce can do so by making a mail request to the California Superior Court. One can also make an in person request, as the court does not accept phone requests. Fees vary from one county to another. In Alameda County for example, a divorce record search of more than 15 minutes will cost one $15. Certified copies of the divorce report also cost $15. For those who are on a tight budget, they can do an in person search and check out the records themselves. For a more convenient and hassle-free record search, one can check out online sites that do offer public records searches. This is the most convenient way for one to get hold of records without having to wait for the processing time that requesting from the county court needs.
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